Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a phosphodiesterase inhibiting drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names. Energy drinks are likely to have an even higher caffeine content, and often contain other stimulants. Xanthine is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. Am J Epidemiol. Ruben Vardanyan, Victor Hruby, in Synthesis of Best-Seller Drugs, 2016. Lyon (FR): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1991. In the kidneys, xanthine forms tiny crystals that occasionally build up to create kidney stones. Synthesis and properties of oligonucleotides containing 2′-deoxynebularine and 2′-deoxyxanthosine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are the major naturally occurring alkaloids in coffee and tea. Caffeine, selected metabolic gene variants, and risk for neural tube defects. 5.7 Xanthine derivatives. 1991 Jul-Aug;13(4):441-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1921923, Intrauterine exposure to caffeine and inattention/overactivity in children. High levels of uric acid can predispose to gout when the acid crystalizes in joints; this phenomenon only happens in humans and some animal species (e. g. dogs) that lack an intrinsic uricase enzyme that can further degrade uric acid. A bronchodilator used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, COPD, and emphysema. Maternal caffeine consumption and sine causa recurrent miscarriage. In some people with hereditary xanthinuria, the condition does not cause any health problems. Comparison of theophylline and theobromine metabolism in man. A number of studies have demonstrated an increased rate of cryptorchidism, anal atresia and cleft lip/palate amongst infants whose mothers consumed caffeine during pregnancy; however, these studies were limited by retrospective exposure assessment, small sample size and failure to adjust for other potential confounders including maternal smoking and alcohol consumption 21). Access health plan drug formulary information when looking up a particular drug, and save time and effort for you and your patient. 2006; 163(11): 1035-41. Xanthine is formed following enzymatic degradation of adenine and guanine. 944, 1070, 1135. Jr, Arnaud M.J., Dvorchik B.H., Passananti G.T., Vesell E.S. In: Spiller, G.A., ed., The Methylxanthine Beverages and Foods: Chemistry, Consumption, and Health Effects, New York, Alan R. Liss, pp. Drug Metab. Doxofylline. Levels have been reported to be 20 mg/kg in green coffee beans 50), 0.15–0.20% in manufactured tea 51) and 0.3% in dried mate 52). The data relating to the effects of caffeine on fetal growth in utero are mixed. 1985;37:415–424. Similarly, various structural anomalies have been reported following caffeine exposure in utero but a causal association or consistent embryopathy has not been demonstrated. Chemistry; End Use; Value Chain Int J Mol Sci 2012;13: 15475–15495. Sørensen, A.H. Riis, E.E. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away. Molecules. 2014;16:15241–15248. In: Spiller, G.A., ed., The Methylxanthine Beverages and Foods: Chemistry, Consumption, and Health Effects, New York, Alan R. Liss, pp. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr;24(4):783-93. doi: 10.1007/s10552-013-0161-9. Its analogue, aminophylline, can be given intravenously (IV). More recent studies have also found a positive correlation between caffeine intake and low birth weight 27) found reduced infant birth weight with maternal daily caffeine intake of more than 540 mg, whilst Sengpiel 28) reported that maternal caffeine intake of more than 200 mg to 300 mg/day increased the odds for having a small for gestational age infant. BMJ. There is no curative treatment for hereditary xanthinuria. As a result, sufferers are at dramatically increased risk of developing kidney stones, gout and muscle disease. Theophylline is a bronchodilator. Xanthine-containing beverages including chocolate, coffee, cocoa, cola, maté, and tea are widely consumed and have a mild stimulant effect on the CNS. Nucleic Acids Res. 3. xanthine derivatives bronchodilating activity bronchodilating activity Prior art date 1989-03-10 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Nanotechnol. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. These stones can impair kidney function and ultimately cause kidney failure. Xanthine oxidase (XO, sometimes ' XAO ') is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase, a type of enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species. Phys. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this allopurinol. Epub 2013 Feb 13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23404349. Xanthine: A substance found in caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and encountered in tea, coffee, and the colas. Furafylline is a derivative of methylxanthine derivative. The methylxanthines, theophylline, and dyphylline are used in the treatment of airways obstruction caused by conditions such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. Moderate to heavy caffeine consumption during pregnancy and relationship to spontaneous abortion and abnormal fetal growth: a meta-analysis. Take theophylline with a full glass of water on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. Bamifylline. The well-known caffeine, present in coffee and tea and various soft beverages, is none other than 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (Figure 2). Xanthinuria leads to urolithiasis (kidney stones formation), hematuria (blood in urine), renal colic and urinary tract infections (UTIs), while some patients are asymptomatic and others suffer from kidney failure. A prospective Danish study found a slight elevated rate of stillbirth amongst pregnant women who had consumed more than eight cups of coffee a day 19). (1986) Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of Drugs, 2nd ed., London, The Pharmaceutical Press, pp. Single studies have suggested a possible association with childhood acute leukemia and hyperactivity, but these findings remain to be confirmed. 149–178. Epub 2010 Jun 15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20558227, Schmidt RJ, Romitti PA, Burns TL, et al. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The New Zealand study 40) also found that infants born to women who consumed high quantities of caffeine whilst pregnant were more likely to experience sleep apnea (difficulty breathing during sleep). Food chem. A meta-analysis from 1998, which included approximately 50,000 pregnant women, suggested a slightly increased risk of having a baby with IUGR, if the mother had consumed more than 150 mg of caffeine per day 26). Two of the bases in nucleic acids, adenine and guanine, are purines. It is also used in to prevent and treat pulmonary complications of premature birth. There is insufficient robust scientific evidence on which to provide a specific recommendation regarding the amount of caffeine that can be consumed during pregnancy without causing harm to the fetus. 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